How will the universe end?

Hey guys it’s me again, and I couldn’t come up with anything to put in this intro so i’ll just leave it like this. Anyway today’s question, well one of them, was inspired by a user known as Elusus, I received this message today via the contact page “Can you write a post on the life time of a star and how the ending of stars would effect the earth, thanks”.

So this got me thinking and as you can see the title of this post is not the same as the question Elusus asked, the reason I have changed it slightly is because I thought that the ending of all stars would be the at the end of the universe. So we’ll first look at the life cycle of a sun, let’s take our sun for an example, our sun is a medium sized star and it ‘works’ by compressing hydrogen into helium in a fusion reaction. Now the sun is very large and has a massive mass, meaning it has a lot of gravity, but the sun does a large balancing act. As the fusion takes place, a lot of energy is expelled and is sent outwards so this, in turn, counter acts the force of gravity making the the sun stable.

However the sun will eventually burn out all of it’s hydrogen, this will be in a few billion years, however it will happen and when it does the sun will start to burn it’s outer layer. It will then do this until it eventually becomes about the size of Earth (much smaller than it’s original size), although it will only be half of it’s original mass, meaning it will be extremely dense. Anyway by this time the Earth will be long gone and so will any chance of life on it, but what about the universe, what will be the last things left?

Very large suns die quickly and explode in violent super nova’s or turn into black holes, I’ve just explained what a medium sized star will do, so what will a smaller star do. It will basically do the exact same as a medium sized star but calmer and slower, these red dwarfs slowly burn out over trillions of years and form white dwarfs. These white dwarfs are the things that will last the longest along with black holes. Then eventually these white dwarfs will turn into black dwarfs and the universe will be a cold, dark, lifeless place, where nothing new will ever happen and never could happen. Although these events are so many billion years away that in our lifetime it really does not matter and it is nothing to worry about.

Thank for reading guys and thanks to Elusus for sending in this request, I hope you all enjoyed this post and if you did be sure to leave a like and follow for more.

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How does cyanide work?

Ever wondered how the classic movie poison worked? Well now you can find out below.

Hello people, it’s me again, back to give you another migraine trying to understand our world. Anyway today’s topic is one that I thought of while watching doctor who.

So, I’m sure that you have all heard of cyanide, it is a very fast acting posion that is commonly used in films and TV series. I’m going to explain how it works, the first thing that you have to know is that you come into contact with cyanide everyday in many things. The fact is they are not all deadly.

Cyanide at it’s base is just carbon and nitrogen chemically bonded. The deadly variations of cyandide are; potassium cyanide (KCN), sodium cyanide (NaCN), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and cyanogen chloride (CNCl).

So how does cyanide work? Well, in a nut shell cyandide stops your mitochondria being able to use oxygen to create energy and this kills you. The cyanide ion, CN-, binds to the iron atom in cytochrome oxidase in the mitochondria of cells. It acts as an irreversible enzyme inhibitor, preventing cytochrome  oxidase from doing its job, which is to take the electrons to oxygen in the electron transport chain of aerobic cellular respiration.

This then prevents the mitochondria from being able to use the oxygen and this then stops them from being able to create carrier adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is what tissue cells such as heart muscles and nerve cells use as an energy source, with this energy gone they quickly expend all of their stored energy and die. This all happens very quickly and once enough of your critical cells die, you will die.

Thank you everyone for reading, I hope you enjoyed and learned something new. It was a bit of longer more complex post this time with much more in depth science. Tell me if you enjoy this way or if you prefer when I just scrape the surface. Anyway, follow for more, like if you liked it and peace.